Mustansiriyah Journal of Humanities <ul> <li>The journal receives research in (human) specializations that are appropriate and close to the departments of the College of Education, in both Arabic and English.</li> </ul> <p>1- The Arabic language and its branches.</p> <p>2- Ancient, Islamic, modern and contemporary history.</p> <p>3- Natural and human geography, geographic information systems (GIS).</p> <p>4- Environmental and climatic studies.</p> <p>5- Psychological counseling.</p> <p>6- Social and Anthropological Studies.</p> <p>7- Psychological and educational studies.</p> <p>8- The Qur’an and its sciences.</p> <p>9- Teaching methods and curricula.</p> <p><strong>publishing ethics</strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The journal follows the Code of Conduct, best practice guidelines for journal editors, and ethical guidelines for peer reviewers.</span></p> الجامعه المستنصرية en-US Mustansiriyah Journal of Humanities 2958-0730 Issue contents <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="الترجمة" data-ved="2ahUKEwidxcK70MaCAxWUgf0HHWPSCSMQ3ewLegQIDRAP"><span class="Y2IQFc">Issue contents</span></pre> Issue contents Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-08 2023-11-08 1 2 Evaluating The Content Of The Social Books For The Primary Stage According Of Knowledge Economy Standards <p>The current research is an attempt to evaluating the content of the social books for the primary stage according of knowledge economy standards . The research sample included the content of social books for the academic year (2020-2021).</p> <p>To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher relied on the literature, research and previous studies in determining the criteria of the knowledge economy in its initial form. Then it was presented to a group of experts and arbitrators in geographic teaching methods , history , curricula, measurement and evaluation, to determine its final version, which included (7)main criteria and (46) sup-indicators.</p> <p>The researcher used the descriptive analytical methods it is suitable with the nature of the study, and he used the books of the primary stage, which are three books for the fourth , fifth , and sixth grades, which represents the research community, the content of those books was analyzed in the light of the standards of knowledge economy .The validity of the tool was confirmed by presenting it to a group of experts, and the stability of the tool was calculated by re-analysis with a time difference between the first second analysis, and by agreement between the researcher and external. The researcher relied on frequencies and percentages in obtaining the final results, which are as follows:</p> <ol> <li>The fourth grade book of primary school obtained(402)repetitions distributed over its content, The percentage of each of the knowledge economy ware as follows, it was a field of knowledge (23,63), and activities and calendar (18,16), and readiness for learning and self-development (16,91), and life skills (16,17),and thinking development (12,94), and communication and communication(6,72), and economic filed (5,47).</li> <li>The fifth grade book of primary school obtained(510)repetitions distributed over its content, The percentage of each of the knowledge economy ware as follows, it was a field of knowledge (21,96), and readiness for learning and self- development (17,25) , and activities and calendar (16,47), and life skills (15,49),and thinking development (13,73), and communication and communication(7,84), and economic filed (7,26).</li> <li>The sixth grade book of primary school obtained(497)repetitions distributed over its content, The percentage of each of the knowledge economy ware as follows, it was a field of knowledge (20,72), and readiness for learning and self- development(16,90), and activities and calendar (15,90), , and life skills (15,29),and thinking development (12,48), and economic filed (11,27), and communication and communication(7,44).</li> <li>When comparing the results with the expected spoken ratios ,the social sciences books achieved good percentages in the criteria (cognitive, readiness for learning and self- development, activities and evaluation, and life skills) and did not achieve the required percentages in my criteria (development of thinking ,communication and communication) as for the (economic field) it achieved the required percentages for the books of the (fourth and sixth) grade of primary school ,but did not achieve the percentage specified for the book of the (fifth) grade of primary school. In the light of the above stated results, suitable conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for further studies are put forward.</li> </ol> A .P. D. Mohammed Hashim Mones AL_Fartoosi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Narrative Character Patterns in Abbas Latif’s Novels <p>The novelist Abbas Latif is one of the writers of Iraq, who was distinguished by his numerous writings. As he wrote in criticism, theater, novel and story, and since his birth in Baghdad in 1959, his first attention was born in childhood and in the corridors of the primary school. The Arabic language and I talked about his way of writing the creation. In this research, I addressed the types of characters in the novels of the writer Abbas Latif and found it necessary to clarify their concept as it represents an important threshold for probing the personal worlds that contribute to building the narrative receiver. The process of drawing characters is not an easy process. The novelist must be familiar with his characters and their temperament, goals and ambitions in order to be able to define their social and psychological dimensions with high accuracy.</p> Jinan Mahdi Hammadi Prof. Rabab Hashem Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Structuers of Augmentative Verb In Letters of Ibn Ibi Al-khasal <p>This extracted research deals an important topic within The Morphological Level, which is THE FORMS OF AUGMENTED VERBS, and then apply it to the letters of An Andalusian writer, IBN ABI AL-KHASAL(D.540.AH). Through this research, we will stop at the writers linguistic ability and his ability to express accurately and beautifully effective through his use of images of additional verbs, and his understanding of the functions of these morphological increases in deriving a new meaning and employing it within the text and the extent of their contributions to enriching the linguistic lexicon with vocabulary and semantics.</p> Ikram Mohammed Kareem Dr.Shafa'a Khudier Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Problems Of Speed And Accuracy Of Visual Perception Of The Color Variable For Maps Of The Geographical Distribution Of Communicable Diseases In The Governorates Of Central Iraq For The Period (2015-2019) <p>The map is the language of geography, the symbols represented by cartographical are the language of maps, and visual perception is the ability to interpret the information transmitted from visible light to the eye. Choosing the optimum symbols and colors in order to reach the best, fastest and most accurate visual perception for the user, as well as avoiding the difficulties and problems of confusion and complexity. Cartography when designing, as well as the problems that lead to poor speed and accuracy of the reader's visual perception of maps, And after conducting a questionnaire on a random sample of university professors and graduate and undergraduate students, the research concluded that GIS provides wide options when selecting the appropriate colors to represent the map data, and that the use of the color gradient (Temperature) achieved the fastest visual perception among the search maps <strong>fro</strong>m (10) degrees by (6.67), and the slowest visual perception was for the color gradient map (Purple-Red Bright) by (5.25), and the color gamut achieves faster perception the higher the degree of contrast of the colors used to encode the map, and overall, the color coding achieves excellent perceptual accuracy, especially when representing Rate the data directly.</p> 1Hanadi Talib Ismail Al-Qaisi 2 Dr. Shaymaa Akram Ahmed Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Paradox in Fadl Khalaf Jabr’s Poetry <p>The aesthetics of the text that was the subject of our study included irony of all kinds as a tool for controlling others' emotions. By flipping the significance, sowing shock and awe, and setting up mental traps, irony has the power to draw the reader into the text's world and turn him into a partner. A good reader looks for deep writings, which demand mental work, in-depth thought, and the pursuit of the intended meaning, rather than direct declarative texts.</p> <p>This title was not picked at random; rather, it was the product of a thorough perusal of the poet's volumes. I discovered that they are packed with a wide variety of lyrical paradoxes, enough to inspire a master's thesis or a Ph.D. dissertation. Because of the narrow scope of our academic research, I summed it up as (verbal and dramatic irony, irony, and sarcasm</p> Assit. Prof. Dr. Jamal Ajeel Sultan AL-Azbeje Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Quality of School Life among Primary School Teachers <p>The aim of the current research is to identify the quality of school life among male and female primary school teachers in Rusafa Third Education. The research objectives were to identify the quality of school life among primary school teachers and the significance of the differences in the quality of school life according to the gender variable (males - females). To achieve the research objectives, a scale was adopted ( Belkasmi Bou Abdullah, 2019) to measure the quality of school life, which consists of (34). The options were (strongly agree, moderately agree, slightly agree, slightly reject, moderately reject, strongly disagree) and grades were given (1,2, 3,4,5,6) The quality of school life, which consists of five dimensions: the nature of work, which consists of 6 items, educational supervision, which consists of 7 items, job satisfaction, which consists of 7 items, mental health, which consists of 7 items, and human relations, which consists of 7 items, and defines society. The current research on primary school teachers in the third Rusafa Education Directorate for the academic year (2021_2022), as the total number of the research community reached (8078) and the number of male teachers reached (2649) and female teachers (5429), and the number of the current research sample reached (200) male and female teachers who were chosen randomly and showed The results are that the research sample of male and female teachers enjoys a level of quality of school life, and there are statistically significant differences between males and females. The result was in favor of females. The researcher used the SASS statistical package, and recommendations and proposals were developed.</p> Assistant Teacher: ZAINAB KAREEM SHAEA Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Mental Messages, Its Concept, Origin, Benefits, Theories On Which It Was Based, Teaching Strategies <p>The current research aims to identify mental maps, their concept, origin, benefits, theories on which they are based, and teaching strategies, as they are one of the means used by the human mind to understand a certain idea and consolidate it in memory with this idea. Through shapes, images and colors, the strategy of mind maps uses the right and left sides of the brain to understand and clarify the subject of the idea, which facilitates understanding and clarification for the learner.</p> 1Huda Abdel Latif 2Dr. Rita Shahwan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Assessing the Quality and Effectiveness of Scholarship Programs in Iraq: A Study of Impact, Sustainability, and Equity <p>The research aims to prove the advantages of the Iraqi government's scholarship plan and how they contribute to the education and employment development of other countries studies. The questionnaire method is used to collect data from participants in different scholarships in Iraq. A total of 2057 people responded to the online questionnaire. After ignoring 20 answers, 2037 answers were analyzed due to repetition. The first stage of the evaluation involves two aspects: the appropriate investigation of the workplace, the recipient of the scholarship, and the inspection of self-motivation to use their professional knowledge. The survey also collected personal information, such as age, gender, and functional details, from the recipients of scholarships. The study will analyze the education and professional results of scholarship winners, as well as their views on the effectiveness of the plan. In addition, research will investigate the sustainability of the plan and its ability to continue to provide scholarships in the future. Finally, the study will evaluate the plan by checking its accessibility and fairness to various social groups. The study results provide insights on the advantages and disadvantages of the Iraqi scholarship plan, and will affect future political decisions related to education opportunities and justice</p> Dr. Ahmed Kanan Sulyman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Efficacy of Bruner's Educational Model for the Improvement of Ceramic Skills among the Students at the Institute of Fine Arts <p>The current research aims to design teaching plans according to Bruner's educational model to improve ceramics skills and testing the efficacy of the teaching plans by applying them to a sample of fifth-grade students in the Ceramics Branch/Department of Fine Arts/Institute of Fine Arts for Girls.</p> <p>To achieve the second goal, the researcher developed two null hypotheses. The researcher chose a purposive sample from the original community from the Institute of Fine Arts / Al-Karkh for Girls (morning study), Department of Fine Arts, Ceramics Branch, Fifth Grade, with (10) students from Section (A) representing the experimental group and (10) students from Section (B) represent the control group for the academic year (2022-2023). The results of the research showed the superiority of the students of the experimental group that learned the artistic skills of ceramics according to the stages of the educational model prepared according to Bruner's educational model.</p> Lecturer: Mayada Hassan Murhaj Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Constructing The Novelist Character A study in The Novel (Professors of Illusion) <p>The fictional character represents an important element of the narrative formation in the fictional or narrative text, As the fictional character is the only element at which all other formal elements intersect , Including the temporal and spatial coordinates necessary for the growth and steadiness of the fictional discourse. There is no novel without a character that leads the events, organizes the actions, and gives the story its narrative dimension. All writers have resorted to employing different techniques to present the fictional character and draw its physical and psychological features according to various and different semantic purposes. The authors' differed among themselves some of them draw the character in the smallest detail and others are those who obscure the personality from every outward description. Some of them present it in a (direct) way, telling about its nature, descriptions, and everything related to it or presents it in an (indirect) way, as entrusts this to other imaginary characters within the fictional work, but in general it can be divided the construction of the character into two styles.</p> <p>First: news style where the narrator informs about the character and draws its features through two levels:</p> <p>- The news style at the level of external vision</p> <p>- The news style at the level of internal vision</p> <p>Second: the dramatic style</p> <p>According to this trend in constructing fictional characters, the novel “Professors of Illusion” was written by the writer (Ali Badr), which we can consider “historical blog” documenting the details of the social, political and economic life in Iraq. In one of the most difficult stages that the Iraqi people went through during the eighties of the last century, while they were enduring the conditions of the war that lasted for eight years, which ate the crops and the cattle.</p> <p>The Iraqi novelist (Ali Badr) tries, through his fictional characters, to give an analytical visualization of the conscious and educated youth, revealing his thoughts, feelings, dreams, and ambitions, in light of a repressive political regime based on confiscating the freedom of youth and driving them to the machine of death (war).</p> Asst. prof. Ahmed Hussein Jarallah (PhD) Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Elements of Reference In M Rhymed Verses of Alfarasdaq Poet As A Rhetorical Similarity <p>This study was based on revealing the role played by the elements of reference, especially the demonstrative noun and the pronoun, in achieving the speaker's intention by conveying great meanings befitting the position of the Praiseworthy Imam Ali bin Al-Hussein. Al-Farazdaq mentioned them along with a network of relationships that tightly connect the parts of the text, which increases the interaction of the recipient to fall upon him. What the speaker means. The reference came as a reference to the near masculine singular in the first stanzas of Al-Farazdaq's poem in nine places to draw the recipient's attention to the status of the given, and one place as a reference to the distant masculine singular at the end of his poem. The reference was made with the third person singular pronoun, connected ((), and separately (he) and concealed in two-thirds of the poem to show the religious and social status of the praised person and his piety, tolerance, generosity, good manners, and great status. Then the reference came with the third person collective pronoun (they) in the last third of it, to include those meanings. Noble religion, and the noble morals of the People of the House, peace be upon them in general.</p> Proff. asst. Dr. Haidar Hadi Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Minister Tawbah Ali bin Muhajir (Taqi Al-Din Bin Tawbah): His Life and His Assumption of the Ministry in Damascus (620 AH-698 AH) <p>This study deals with an Islamic figure who held the Ministry of Treasury in Damascus several times in a row, and was able to support his position among the sultans of the Mamluk state and prove his competence in holding several positions. DDespite his frequent dismissal and assuming the position of the ministry, he was able with his intelligence and courage to take the position of the Ministry for several times and convince the sultans of his ability to take over the position of the ministry in Damascus and manage it for five sultans in a row.</p> M.M. Muhammad Thajil Dasher Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Effect of the Constructivist Yakir Model (CLM) in Acquiring Historical Concepts for Fifth-Grade Literary Students and Developing Their Spatial-Visual Intelligence <p>The current research aims Identifying the effect of (Yaker's Constructivist Model (CLM) on the acquisition of historical concepts by fifth-grade literary students and the development of their spatial-visual intelligence).</p> <p>To verify the aim of the research and its hypotheses, an experimental research method was used, and a design of two equal groups with partial control with a post-test was chosen. The sample consisted of (70) students from the fifth literary grade, studying European history and modern and contemporary America in the First Rusafa Education Directorate, in middle school. (Al-Farouq for boys) The research sample was selected by a simple random method, and two groups were selected from the fifth literary grade, distributed into two groups, an experimental group taught according to the constructivist model (CLM) and a control group taught according to the usual method, after the researcher conducted equivalence operations between the two groups in the variables. The following (the chronological age of the students, academic achievement for the previous year 2018/2019, intelligence - a pre-test in visual-spatial intelligence), and the t-test was used) for two independent samples. It turned out that the difference is not statistically significant at the level of (0.05)</p> <p>To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher adopted the test for acquiring historical concepts by researcher Mahdi, Qasim Ismail (2013), which consists of (54) objective items after confirming its validity by presenting it to experts and specialists, and extracting its stability by re-applying it. The researcher also prepared a test for spatial intelligence. - Al-Basri consists of (30) paragraphs prepared by reviewing previous literature and studies, after confirming its validity and extracting its reliability.</p> <p>After correcting the answers and processing the data statistically, the results of the research showed that the students of the experimental research group who learned the subject according to Yacker’s model were superior to the students of the control research group who studied the same subject using the usual method in acquiring historical concepts and developing their spatial-visual intelligence.</p> <p>The researcher came up with a set of recommendations, the most important of which is: using Yacker’s constructivist model (CLM) not in subjects other than history, because it has an impact on their acquisition of historical concepts and the development of their spatial-visual intelligence.</p> <p>The researcher also suggested conducting a number of future studies, including: a study similar to the current study to identify the effect of Yacker’s constructivist model (CLM) on other variables such as: (creative thinking and developing mental abilities).</p> Dr. Arkan Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Grammatical Guidance in Nouns - Verbs and Tools in the Corner Book of the Deceased Dadith (715 AH) (Comparative Study) <p>Grammatical orientation is a grammatical phenomenon that has received the attention of ancient and modern grammarians.</p> <p>&nbsp;In this research, we focus on this phenomenon according to AL-HADITHI (D. 715 D) in his explanation of IBN AL-HAJIB’S KAFIYAT called AL-KITAB AL-RUKANI.</p> <p>The axis of our study is nouns, verbs, and tools. AL-HADITHI leads the text and presents it to the grammatical rule, and he mentions the scantest opinion from the Basra and Kufic schools, and guides them to the text, that he selects one of these opinions, or takes a special decision for himself according to his knowledge or what his grammatical ability lead for it, and the multiplicity of grammatical aspects in nouns, verbs, and tools according to one of the commentators of KAFIFA, IBN AL-HAJIB, and it can be said that Grammatical guidance has arisen since the arisen of grammar in its conventional sense. The grammarian mentions the ruling and then infers it by analogy with the speech of the Arabs. Thus, he used to direct the text to conform to the grammatical rules based on the rules of the Arabic language. In this way, the text was compatible with Arabic on one side, and the grammatical orientation of the HADITHI in general was characterized by what could be called mingling and selection. That is, he was mingling the opinions of grammarians and their schools of thought on a single grammatical issue, and he recommended deep research into our Arab heritage and displaying its creativity, to enrich modern studies with it.</p> Assoc. Prof. Suhair Jawad Ali M. Mona Ibrahim Obaid Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Spatial Variations Of The Concentrations Of Petroleum Materials In The Waters And Sediments Of The Shatt Al-Arab River In (Abu Kasib District) And Environmental Effects <p>The results of the current study showed that the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water and sediments of the longitudinal section studied (Abu Al-Khasib District) recorded high concentrations of petroleum materials in the bottom sediments compared to their presence in the water mass for both seasons . To witness seasonal and locational variation, Its percentage increased during the winter compared to the summer, The reason is that bacteria break down petroleum hydrocarbons in a temperature range 30-40 degrees Celsius, and a lower temperature reduces the activity of organisms that decompose petroleum materials , As for our two locations, their values ​​increased in the first station, due to its proximity to the Al-Khorah irrigation canal, which is a berth for boats and ships, with a population increase, and they decreased in the second and third stations.</p> Assistant. Prof Dr. Sorour Abdul-Amir Hamzah Prof. Dr. Nameer Nathir Murad Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Position of the United States of America on the Military Coup in Bolivia and The Assumption of Power Hugo Banzer 1971 – 1973 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Bolivia's history has been linked to military coups more than any other country as a result of rampant corruption, mismanagement of governance and low economic performance, which the Bolivian military found a justification to pounce on power in order to save the country from collapse and reform its institutions and economy, convinced that the policy of pressuring the Bolivian regime for moderation had failed, the United States called for a more direct approach, in an attempt to find a better alternative, and to fund anti-regime groups. The United States put the money behind its policy, Supporting the leaders of the right-wing military wing as a guarantee of stability, taking advantage of the army's need for loans and military aid to get out of political crises .</p> Tahanee Nseef Aaeada mamun Shakir Ismael Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 Intertextuality In The Poetry Of Ajwad Mijbil <p>Intertextuality appears in the poetry of Ajwad&nbsp; Migbil, by multiple mechanisms,Absorption was Its most important pillar, through the formations of Intertextuality in different colors, the most prominent of which is the presence of the Qur’anic text in his poetry, supporting his poems with It, leaving the reader with the pleasure of listening.And Interpretation, just as the presence of referential intertextuality in the circle of popular song constructs the architecture of the text, and we do not lose sight of it’s accessibility from literary texts.As Gerard Genet says ((I only care about the text in terms of Its textual transcendence, that Is, to know everything that makes It in a hidden or overt relationship, with other texts…))</p> Nisreen Daram Khalif Ahmed Mahdi Atallah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Approach Of Mr. Abbas Al-Moussawi (May God Protect Him) In Prohibiting Usury <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research employs both inductive and analytical methods to focus on the life and analytical approach of Abbas Al-Musawi, with the goal of providing clear insights. It encompasses an introduction, two main sections, a conclusion, and a list of sources used. This effort represents a comprehensive study of the life and scholarly contributions of Sayyed Abbas Al-Musawi.</p> <p>The first section delves into Sayyed Abbas Al-Moussawi's life, encompassing details such as his name, birth, and his scholarly journey. It also explores his migration to the Holy City of Najaf, the challenges he faced, the reasons for his prolonged stay there, and the prominent scholars and individuals who were influenced by him, along with his subsequent students who benefited from his knowledge.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the second section, the research focuses on Abbas Al-Moussawi's approach to interpreting verses related to legal rulings. It includes an examination of the linguistic and terminological definitions of usury, the rationale behind its prohibition, and the specific Quranic verses that explicitly forbid usury. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The section also highlights the findings derived from this research, shedding light on Mr. Abbas's extensive work on the subject of usury, its societal implications, the legal rulings associated with it, and the verses that unequivocally prohibit any involvement with usury in any form.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In conclusion, this research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Abbas Al-Musawi's life and his scholarly contributions, particularly in the context of usury and its religious significance. The sources used in this research are carefully documented. After extensive effort and dedication, I present this work with the hope that it contributes to a deeper understanding of the truth.</p> Sari Saadoun Jassim Hamid Dr. Muhammad Mahmoud Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2 The Efforts of The Arab Islamic State In Agriculture In The Umayyad Era 41-132 H/661- 750AD <p>The research deals with the efforts of the Arab Islamic state in developing agriculture in the Umayyad era, the importance of agriculture al activity and its major role in supporting the revenues of the treasury and thus activating various aspects of economic, political and social life, and the states efforts in various aspects of agriculture al activity from topography , climate and the human aspect. The importance of the research comes in highlighting the efforts of the Umayyad state in developing agricultural activity as it is a source of support for the states imports . One of the objectives of the research is to identify the efforts of the caliphs and government in developing agriculture , and to explain the importance of agriculture and to know the methods through which lands were reclaimed, the mashes were transformed into agricultural lands,&nbsp; the revival of dead lands, and how to provide irrigation water. Due to the nature of the research , the historical research approach was followed, and the limits of the research were the era of the Umayyad state(42-132 H/ 661- 750 AD). The research came out with several results, the most important of which is that agricultural activity represents an important tributary to the state economy, giving land to those who make it productive and withdrawing it from those who neglect it, and there is no objection to private owner ship of agricultural lands. This, if it contributes to the development of agriculture and the necessity of providing irrigation water by various means and returning Iraq to its pioneering agricultural realty by benefiting from the experiences of those who came before us.</p> M.Dr.Ahmed Muhammad Hamad Al-Mashhadani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 1 2