Mustansiriyah Journal of Humanities <ul> <li>The journal receives research in (human) specializations that are appropriate and close to the departments of the College of Education, in both Arabic and English.</li> </ul> <p>1- The Arabic language and its branches.</p> <p>2- Ancient, Islamic, modern and contemporary history.</p> <p>3- Natural and human geography, geographic information systems (GIS).</p> <p>4- Environmental and climatic studies.</p> <p>5- Psychological counseling.</p> <p>6- Social and Anthropological Studies.</p> <p>7- Psychological and educational studies.</p> <p>8- The Qur’an and its sciences.</p> <p>9- Teaching methods and curricula.</p> <p><strong>publishing ethics</strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">The journal follows the Code of Conduct, best practice guidelines for journal editors, and ethical guidelines for peer reviewers.</span></p> الجامعه المستنصرية en-US Mustansiriyah Journal of Humanities 2958-0730 About the Journal <h1>About the Journal</h1> About the Journal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Issue contents <p>Issue contents</p> Issue contents Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 General conditions of the East Indies during the world economic crisis and beyond 1929-1939 <p>the countries of the world, including the Netherlands and the east indies, were affected by the economic crisis of 1929 (the great depression, which hit the great powers in a major recession, and this crisis is classified as one of the most violent and powerful crises that passed through the world during the 20th century, and there was no doubt that the economic crisis had a direct impact on the policies of countries around the world. &nbsp;the effects of the crisis also reflected on all colonies, including the east indies as colonies of the Netherlands. security in the territory of east indies had been undermined and their desire to break free from Dutch colonialism has been evident, with the establishment of a number of parties and the widespread national awareness among the strata of east indies society.</p> Nour Al-Huda Riad Ayoub, Prof. Dr. Safaa Karim Shukr Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Building a map of potential water erosion in the Wadi Al-Baswa basin using GIS &RS <p>The current study aims to apply a model Erosion Potential Method (EPM), To estimate the potential water erosion of the Wadi Al-Baswa basin, by relying on indicators affecting soil erosion, especially the regression factor, The nature of surface and soil formations, and the extent of their resistance to erosion processes, In addition to the effect of vegetation cover, which has an important role in protecting the soil from erosion, As well as using precipitation rates and temperature, which facilitates its erosion.</p> <p>In light of this, the researcher used GIS software, especially Arc map 10.8, To extract the indicators required to apply the EPM model, As it becomes clear that the largest part of the area of the region, which is (84.6) km2, out of the total area of ​​163 km2, is It is exposed under the influence of medium erosion, at a rate of (51.9%), losing about (500-1500) m3 / km 2 / year, This is due to the basin’s lack of adequate protection as a result of the weak or absence of vegetation cover and the exposure of the soil to disintegration, which facilitates its erosion. In addition, about (22.8%) of the area is subject to severe erosion, The rate of soil loss is estimated at (1500-5000) m 3 / km 2 / year, especially within the weak resistance formations, severe slope, and weak vegetation cover.</p> Inst. Hayam Numan Falih Mohammed (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Grammatical reasoning for inquiries in the blessed Surat Al-Naml <p>My desire was to delve into a topic related to the curriculum of our constitution (Qur’an). I was passionate about trying to delve into study and linking it to the linguistic lesson, especially the grammatical meaning. Through reading it, I was stopped by the frequent occurrence of questions in this blessed surah, and the good interpretation of those questions in the field of grammatical meaning and Rhetorical, and highlighting the efficiency it holds in convincing the listener to speak, by altering the stages between the types of questions, and the good localize of these tools in them. The research titled “Interrogative Questions in the chapter of Ants (A Grammatical Study) aims to study the two types of interrogatives, and the extent of their influence in Quranic discourse on the recipient by measuring his rhetorical ability to persuade. The commentators’ treatment and analysis of the blessed verses were not in a way that gives them the potential power to analyze the Qur’anic discourse in the grammatical sense, and they did not indicate - in many cases - the meanings they carry that are sufficient for good interpretation, interpretation and deduction, and interrogative questions remain among the most effective grammatical methods. This is because questions that do not ask for an answer have a greater impact on the recipient and are a stronger argument for him. More than twelve Qur’anic verses in the chapter of ants are mentioned in the form of a declarative interrogative, and most of them are the hamza and metaphorical interrogatives, which are artistic and rhetorical means aimed at convincing the recipient of an idea or a meaning. On this behalf, this study will come to raise the issue of assertion and denial in one of the rhetorical methods in the circulation Qur’an, and the matter is more related to the denying interrogative, as it analyzes the denying interrogatives that are repeated in some Qur’anic evidence, and reveals the effect of grammar on the meaning of those verses, and the research recommends identifying Modern Arab theories according to the applications studied in Arab curricula, and the rooting of Arab methods, and the Arab researcher does not remain consistent with modern Western theories.</p> Inst. Mona Ibrahim Obaid Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Ceremony Systems for Al -Murabteen and Al- Muwahid in the Islamic Maghreb448-668 AH <p>The study examines the Diwaniyah decree systems for the states of Al-Murabteen and Al-Muwahiden explaining how the Shura initially established the rule in Al-Murabteen. With Youssef's arrival the rule changed to hereditary out of fear of chaos and the necessity for a prince to compose the state's laws and the hearts of the Moroccan and Andalusian boys, as well as his duties evaluating complaints, disbanding inmates, and allocating funds. The Murabteen wore black clothing as their symbol, adopted the titles as "Nasser al-Din and The Prince of Muslims", which had been used later on. They also follow the Al-Mohads in their system of government. The latter consists of the state council and leaders, who are dismissed when they behave badly or defy some governors and endanger the security of the state. Additionally, they took badges, including whiteness, as their emblem, and among their titles are Al- Mahdi Al- Malaum and the infallible Imam and Ibn Tumart Al-Mahdi gave his successor, Abd Al-Mu’min, the title Commander of the Faithful. titles were the known Mahdi and the infallible Imam. And upon his successor, Abd al-Mu’min, Ibn Tumart al-Mahdi gave the title of Commander of the Faithful</p> Zamzam Mohamed Sabber Asst. Prof. Rahim Khalaf Oklah (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Interrogative Lament Poetry: Synthetic Semantic Study <p>This research is titled "The Interrogative in the Poetry of Elegy according to Al-Buhturi: A Syntactic-Semantic Study" because the idea behind it is to study the synthetic aspect of lamentation, and explain its connotations according to Al-Buhturi poet who is well-known for praising and lamenting by mourning the praised one and listing his virtues and influences. The researcher uses a method of study that starts with a statistical study and then analyzes these statistics. In order to demonstrate the power and precision of the meaning of the purpose of lamentation in Al-Buhturi’s poetry. The researcher then addresses each of the interrogative tools in terms of the linguistic structure of the letter itself, the sentence that is contained in it, and an explanation of the connotations of each of them. The poet concentrates on the use of tools of interrogation and grammatical structure to link the structural-semantic analysis such as (Alhamza, (Hel) whether, (Ayen) where, (Ay) which, (Kem) how (Keif), what (Ma), when*Meta), and who (Maen)), fifty-nine times, and he divides them according to their meaning and position. So, the most common use is Alhamza (Hel), because the poet wants his poem to be interrogative, ending with the interrogative device (when) which appears in his poetry only once. In order to convey the idea of picturing something happening in the mind, the poet opts to employ an interrogative form in his poems.</p> Asst. Lect. Suzan Kamel Abed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The grammatical efforts of Sheikh Sulaiman Al-Ahmad (1363 AH) in the Diwan Al-Makzoun Al-Sinjari (638 AH) <p>The research focuses on the grammatical efforts presented by Sheikh Sulaiman Al-Ahmad for the Arabic language, in terms of mentioning new opinions that contradict the grammarians who preceded him, and his tendency towards one opinion over another. The importance of this research lies in the fact that Sheikh Sulaiman Al-Ahmad is well-versed in the Arabic language, preserving its ancient Arabic books. His linguistic stances are characterized by a great deal of accuracy in defining concepts and clarifying meanings. It should be noted that the opinions extracted from Sheikh Sulaiman Al-Ahmad come through the book “Diwan Al-Makzoun Al-Sinjari (638 AH)”, which he explains. His explanation tends to focus on the language in most parts of the Diwan in terms of grammar, morphology, and vocabulary. However, we will suffice in this research to what has been mentioned regarding grammatical efforts only.</p> Ali Rasheed Saleh Prof. Musa Jaafar Al-Harkani (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 General Edmund Allenby's strategy for occupying Jerusalem in 1917 <p>General Edmund Allenby is considered one of the important figures in British history. His military and administrative role became prominent in the last years of World War I. He proved worthy that he is a man of difficult situations, as he was able, through his military strategy and administrative skill, to support British Prime Minister Lloyd George’s plan to transfer battles. From the western front in France, the impact of the losses incurred by his forces in those areas, to the eastern front, starting from Palestine, the main gate for the concentration of Ottoman forces in the east, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the strategic importance its location constituted for Britain. General Edmund Allenby was assigned to lead the British campaign to occupy Upon his arrival, the latter began to organize the military forces and raise their efficiency and improve them, and Allenby was able to defeat the Ottoman army and occupy Jerusalem on (December 9, 1917). I divid &nbsp;the research into three axes. The first axis concerns with Lloyd George’s plan to control the East. The second axis: Allenby assuming leadership of the British campaign to occupy Jerusalem. The third axis is concerned with General Allenby’s strategy for occupying Jerusalem in 1917.</p> Elaf Adnan Abdel Rahman Prof. Rana Abdul Jabbar Hussein Ph.D Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Lebanon's position on the Algerian issue in the Arab League and the United Nations (1954-1962) <p>This research includes a historical follow-up of the Lebanese diplomatic support for the Algerian issue during the period 1954-1962 through the Arab League and the United Nations. The Lebanese position in support of the Algerian revolution was not limited to material and moral support only, but rather went beyond to the diplomatic support, which was represented by the Lebanese position which support the Algerian issue. In the meetings of the Arab League and the United Nations in its capacity as an essential member of it, Lebanon took the initiative from the beginning of the revolution to support it by preparing general opinion to support the Algerian cause and stand against the French colonial policy and its criminal actions in Algeria. It also expressed its support and assiat and its sense of duty and responsibility towards this issue as well as His denunciation of French assist against the Algerian people and his recognition of the right of the Algerian people to self-determination and the legitimacy of their demands. The Lebanese diplomatic effort had a clear positive impact on the Algerian issue and accelerated the issue of the French-Algerian negotiations that led to the Algerian people obtaining their legitimate right to self-determination and their final freedom from French tutelage.</p> Dania Uday Abbas Asst. Prof . Sudad Abdul Hussein Al-Rubaie (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Mawaqif Magazine’s Treatment of the Conditions of Arab Women (1970-1994) <p>International law stipulates in international conventions and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the principle of the right to equality, but it is still not applied in most Arab constitutions. Improving the status of Arab women does not occur against men or in isolation from them. Men and women are in solidarity and interdependence, and everything that benefits or harms one of them,benefits and defends each other and no matter how diverse a woman’s situation in society is, there is no justification for diminishing her status as a human being, nor is there any justification for any legal discrimination that invalidates or restricts women’s recognition of all human rights or limits their full enjoyment and exercise. In addition, the research aims to examine the great efforts made by Lebanese women to obtain their political rights to nominate and vote in elections, as they are deprived of their political rights until the issuance of the legislative decree on February 18, 1953, which allowed them their political rights. In addition to the role of Palestinian and Sudanese women who plays a prominent role in demanding their political and social rights</p> Kawthar Salim Hanith AL_Saaeidi Prof. Saad Nassif Jassim Al-Jumaili (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Spatial Analysis of Electrical stations and the Amount of their water consumption in Baghdad Governorate <p>The research aims to know the uses of water to produce thermal electrical power and the water proportion consumed, such as the thermal South Baghdad Power Station and Al-Dora Power Station in Baghdad Governorate, and also to know the water consumption for cooling purposes for gas stations such as the South Baghdad Station, Al-Taji Station, Al- Dora Station, Al-Quds Station, and Al-Zafaraniyah Station, and spatial analysis of the important and main electrical stations in Baghdad, because of the importance of electrical power in all areas of economic and social life and the development that has occurred in the field of industry, with what we see now for the widespread use of electrical power for public services for people. This project needs development and must be taken care of the competent authorities to the use of electrical power and provide the water necessary for generation, cooling , knowledge of fuel consumption and its source, and knowledge of the spaces occupied by these stations in the future as a result of the development of the stations and the urban expansion of the population as a result of the increase in population in recent years.</p> Arshed Hamzah Hadi Alshammari Prof . Muna Ali Daij (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 الأثر السردي الديني في مقامات بديع الزمان الهمذاني <p>The prose creations of Al-Hamadhani gains widespread acclaim, attracting the attention of numerous scholars and writers. He is considered one of the prominent literary figures of the Abbasid era, profoundly influenced by religious heritage. Al-Hamadhani seamlessly incorporates religious texts into his works, evident in the clarity and eloquence of language, without hesitation in utilizing religious texts for their linguistic beauty and profound meanings. His sharp intellect play a crucial role in this seamless integration, supporting the intended meanings that Al-Hamadhani aimed to convey in his texts. He excels in handling religious themes within his maqamat, evident through the exploration of this impact, which highlights pages carrying the essence of Quranic beauty. Al-Hamadhani often commences some of his maqamat with a clear religious influence, making it apparent in his works as a whole. In these pages, I have presented a modest collection of what Al-Hamadhani drew upon, such as the aesthetics of the Noble Quran. The study also begins by introducing Al-Hamadhani himself, followed by a concise definition of maqamat. It further delves into the significance of narrative elements to connect maqamat with prose, elucidating the importance of narration. The discussion progresses to the core of the research, focusing on the religious impact that enhances descriptive excellence, expression, and sentence construction tailored to the context. Al-Hamadhani's explicit references to Quranic verses and his nuanced approach to conveying meaning are evident throughout the study.</p> Asst. Lect. Hanan Saadi Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Argumentative of the style of attention in the poetry of Ibn Al-Haddad Andalusian : A Pragmatic Study <p>The style of attention is one of the rhetorical methods that poets have adopted in their poems throughout the literary ages. Poets have used it in their creative texts In order to draw the mind of the recipient and direct him towards the goal desired by the poet. It is an ancient rhetorical art that is transferred from the Arab heritage to contemporary argumentative theory because of its ability to communicate, and convincing the recipient through dialogue between the sender and the recipient, as it has the ability to perform a productive act that moves the recipient and complies with him in an effective manner. Perhaps Ibn al-Haddad al-Andalusi is one of the poets who elevate their poems to the level of influence through the logical ideas he presents to the recipient &nbsp;and sensitive feelings in his poetic vision. In addition, the style of attention represents a sincere emotional experience, carrying in its meaning pragmatic meanings that inspire guidance, influence, and persuasion, by moving in speech from one style to another in its persuasive connotations affecting the recipient</p> Asst. Prof. Haidar Ridha Kareem Al-Umairee (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Positive Thinking among Students at Al-Mustansiriya University <p>Changing life and results for the better begins with changing thinking in a positive way, changing thinking leads to changing attitudes, changing attitudes in a better way leads to changing behavior, and changing behavior leads to changing life, which is a continuous series of changes that begin with positive thinking. Positive thinking also leads the individual to the ability to manage crises, form positive, optimistic feelings and a bright vision, choose positive coping strategies, and personally control negative feelings and thoughts when facing crises.The current research aims to identify positive thinking among students of Al-Mustansiriya University. The sample consiste.d of (400) male and female students. To achieve the research goal, the researcher adopts the (Karim 2018) scale for positive thinking, which is built according to the theory of (Slickman 2010) and consists of (40) items and is completed. Extracting the psychometric properties of the scale, such as validity and reliability, and after analyzing the data using statistical methods such as the t-test for one sample, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the test for two independent samples, the results showed that the students of Al-Mustansiriya University have positive thinking.</p> Khadija Khudair Abdel Farhad Asst . Prof. Raghad Ibrahim Al-Moussawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Banking and credit transactions in the Umayyad era <p>Banking and credit operations are linked in markets related to buying and selling, or what is called trade, especially if this profession is restricted and based on the rules and controls of Sharia law that came in the Holy Qur’an and the noble Sunnah of the Prophet, as Islam permitted buying and selling and approved the provisions that guarantee its safety in light of the interests of the individual and society. Likewise, the wisdom of buying and selling is that some people obtain goods and money that they do not have, and they need them for a fair price that they have, while others need it, i.e. the owner of the goods. Thus, the needs of both parties, the seller and the buyer, are satisfied, and this also provides an incentive for production and a guarantee for human needs. So it becomes clear to us that loans and deposits Banking, instruments, and bills of exchange are among the most important of these operations, which facilitated commercial dealings</p> Rasul Rahma Shihan Prof. Naeem Dunian Obaid(phd) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Shaqar Islanda Study of Its General Conditions (92-639H/710-1241) <p>This research focuses on the general conditions on the Andalusian island of Shaqar, as it occupies great importance. Due to its distinguished geographical location, which provided it with many advantages, this city was subjected to many attacks by Christian kingdoms, especially the Kingdom of Castile during the reign of its king Alfonso VI. However, despite this, the city witnessed an intellectual and economic renaissance, due to the fertility of the land and its abundance of Water, the diversity of agricultural crops, the availability of raw material for the establishment of many industries, and its location on trade routes, with have led to the development of public life in all its aspects. The conclusion from what was reported about the city is that it was distinguished by its great role in the Andalusian civilization. Its prominent men were the first to work on the cause of its development in all aspects. We find that its scholars undertook their scientific trips to take from the nectar of science and knowledge wherever it was, and its residents crowded into the gatherings of scholars to acquire knowledge and knowledge, as it became one of The famous Andalusian cities that contributed effectively to the transfer of Arab-Islamic heritage and civilization, whether to Morocco or European countries.</p> Inst. Rasha Hasan Zaghir Al-Saadi(Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Cultural Formation of Women in the Novels of lnaam Kachachi <p>The research deals with cultural references and their impact on the artistic construction of the novels of writer Eanaam Kachaji. Tracing the cultural references of women in the studied novels clarifies Kachachi’s strategy in constructing her narrative world and helps clarify the cognitive backgrounds behind it, and how the intellectual and cultural structure is represented in the narrative construction. Since the narrative genre is loaded with its dialogic specificity and is consistent with non-literary discourses, whether religious, literary, or historical, and is open, away from the textual framing, to formulate the cultural identity of nations, the writer relied on the various cultural legacies and references: social, historical, religious, and literary, and sent them anew in her speech to reach A specific vision that addresses the identity of the traders, and these legacies formed a clear imprint on the writer’s achievement because of their direct or indirect semantic dimensions and were an important part of the structural and thematic fabric of the novels because of their connection to highlighting problems and issues that are specific to women.</p> Zainab Muhammad Munshid Asst. Prof. Jamal Ajeel Sultan Al-Azbaji (PhD.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The style of negation in poetry of the Fewers Poets in the First Century A.H <p>The study aims to know one of the most important styles in the Arabic language, which is: The style of negation in poetry of the Fewers Poets in the First Century A.H, The style of negation is composed of three elements: the tool of negation, the negated, and the negated. There is a fourth element behind this style, by which we mean the negated, It is the speaker - of course - who performs the meaning of negation with some of the tools that the Arabic language has made available for performing negation. Modern Arabic scholars have divided negation into two parts: (The first): an apparent (explicit) denial, and (the second): an implicit denial. Whereas the apparent, it is through the tools of negation, or the implicit, it is known through the context, (The first): an apparent (explicit) denial, and (the second): an implicit denial. As for what is apparent, it is because it includes the meaning of negation without the negative article, such as: (The people attended except Zaid), since the content of the sentence denies the presence of Zaid and confirms it to the people, and the estimation: (Zaid did not attend). As for the articles of negation, they are (not, what, nor, nor, why, why, will not, even, and other), They differ entering into the type of sentence. Some of them negate the actual sentence, some of them negate the nominal sentence, some have a common connection between them, some of them negate the singular, which is (other), and they differ between entering the actual sentence from the nominal.</p> Aqeel Ahmed Ibrahim Prof. Musa Jaafar Fadel Al-Hargani (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Political Perspective in Ali Bader's Novels <p>Perspective is one of the most important concepts that modern criticism has introduced in the analysis of the fictional text, as the perspective carries the writer's own vision, and his view in presenting the event, building the narration, and employing the characters, whether through presenting the perspective in the way of the omniscient narrator, or the participating narrator, or a combination of both. As for the political determination, as one of the important perspectives that the narrators expressed in fictional texts, it takes the side of importance for the effect that politics exercises in social life and all aspects related to man, so that the writer's view is expressive of his political perspective.As for the novelist Ali Badr, he is one of the most prominent novelists who employes the political perspective in the novel. The novelist lives the circumstances of displacement, so the life he lived was a starting point for revealing the different characters, and the different visions in the narration. He defines for us the masculine side, the feminine side, and the impact of politics on the individual's behavior, and then their belonging to a certain direction, to highlight his political perspective, in conjunction with the characters and events they experienced. In this research, we will try to define Ali Badr's perspective on the idea of belonging and building identity.</p> Marwa Raad Bash Agha Prof. Bushra Moosa Salah(P.hD.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The effectiveness of E-training courses and its correlation with developing educational counsellors’ skills <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of electronic training courses organized for educational counselors by the Ministry of Education's training directorates and the preparation and training departments in the general directorates of education in all Iraqi governorates, as well as the impact of these electronic training courses on the guidance skills of educational counselors working in Iraqi High School. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method to his investigation, using a questionnaire based on the Kirk Patrick model for assessing training courses that was adapted to meet the study's aims. The questionnaire was given to total of (412) educational advisers. The findings suggested that school counselors' involvement in E-training was somewhat successful. Furthermore, the findings show that there is a statistically significant relationship between E-training and the development of school counselor abilities. Furthermore, the results revealed that there were no statistically significant associations across factors (gender, school level, and location).</p> Inst. Mohanad Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The effectiveness of the semantic map strategy in acquiring concepts in the subject of personal status jurisprudence among students of the Department of Qur’an Sciences <p>The current research seeks to identify the effectiveness of the semantic map strategy in imparting concepts in the subject of personal status jurisprudence to students of the Qur’an Sciences Department,for this purpose, the researcher relies on the experimental method with two experimental and control groups, a random sample of students from the Qur’an Sciences Department is selected from those who receive the personal status jurisprudence of (60) individual, the sample was distributed randomly to both groups, where a set of equivalencies are made between both groups, in addition to constructing a test to measure the concepts in the personal status jurisprudence subject, after applying the experiment, the study concluded the following; The experimental group that studies according to the semantic map strategy outperformed the control group that studied according to the traditional method in the subject of personal status jurisprudence. The semantic map strategy has clear effectiveness in students’ post-test achievement in the concept test in the personal status jurisprudence subject.</p> Asst.Prof. Nagham ali Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Echoes of the Kurdish issue in the Iraqi and Turkish newspapers 1921-1939:a Historical study <p>The press is one of the important sources in writing history, as it provides the researcher with information and details that are impossible to obtain in other sources. It is a necessary need of society, a historical document, and a source of history. In the subject of our research, there is an important issue that imposes itself strongly in both the Iraqi and Turkish newspapers. It is the Kurdish issue, especially at the beginning of the years 1921 and 1923, as it was the beginning of an important stage in the history of the two newspapers. The year 1921 was marked by the coronation of Faisal I, king of Iraq. Thus, the Iraqi press witnessed an important turning point in Iraq’s political history, as Iraqi newspapers were interested in following up on news of the Kurdish movements in Turkey, to influence Iraqi public opinion, which had little knowledge about these people. As for the year 1923, it witnessed the Kemalists taking control of Istanbul and establishing the republic. The Turkish government controlled the press in a way that served the Turkish state and its national security. The aim of this study is to delve into the depths of these newspapers and find out the extent of their importance and the importance of the information contained in them, which reveals to us something new about the Kurdish issue, especially in this period.</p> Iman Adnan Khalaf Assoc. Prof. Issam K. Abdlradha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Sexual Interpenetration in the News of Bab al-Adab by Osama bin Munqidh (584) AH <p>This study, titled of <strong>(Genres Interference in News of Doors of Literature by Usama bin Munqidh</strong>), sheds light on the diversity of genres in the news of Usama bin Munqidh, and also reveals the methods of overlap between the genres in that era, as the literary genres are not fixed and change from one era to another. We find that the overlap is intentional because of its impact on the recipient, as well as an attempt to break down the barriers between the various literary arts. The enjoyment of news is not complete unless there is another source of news to move the enjoyment indicator within it, and this source is poetry, as the presence of poetry strengthens the content of the news. Poetry may occupy a distinguished position and outperform the prose side of the news, or the opposite may happen and prose outperforms poetry, or poetry may come to bring diversity among genders, as well as to add more pleasure and suspense.</p> Fatima Basim Abdel Hassan Asst. Prof. Hazem Hassan Saadoun (Ph.D.) Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 Pilgrimage factors in the book Peshawar Nights <p>Argumentation is one of the topics of language and its basic center on which it is based, and the argumentator must be familiar and knowledgeable about the techniques, methods, or methods of argumentation. To be able to convince others of an idea or topic, and change the point of view of the recipients, the goal of the pilgrims is to persuade and influence the recipient by providing evidence and proof for a thesis. Argumentative factors are considered an important topic of linguistic argumentation, in which the argumentator attempts to limit and restrict all interpretations and possibilities for a topic or idea to one result in which the speaker seeks to convince the addressee of it. I have chosen examples of these factors in the book Nights of Peshawar, which is a doctrinal book that seeks In it, his author (Sayyid Al-Shirazi) sought to convince his opponents of the validity of the Shiite doctrine and prove the authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). The researcher concludes that the argumentative factors, including (negation of except, but, and almost) in the book (Peshawar Nights), fulfilled their argumentative function of convincing the recipients of the issues raised.</p> Ahmed Taher Hussein Assoc. Prof. Adi Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The Semantics of the Nominal Sentence in the Work of Al-Qawwas Al-Halabi (d. 1000 AH) in his Book 'Maqamat Al-Qawwas Al-Halabi <p>The entitled research "The Semantics of the Nominal Sentence in the Work of Al-Qawwas Al-Halabi (d. 1000 AH)," addresses the study of the Arabic sentence, which has been ambiguously discussed by many ancient and modern grammarians due to their failure to distinguish between the terms "sentence" and "speech." Some grammarians have adopted the view that speech and the sentence are synonymous. Therefore, the aim of this research is to uncover the hazy elepict in which grammarians fell while attempting to differentiate between them. The researchers, then, have proceeded to study the semantics of the nominal sentence in the Al-Qawwas's Maqamat and the semantics of the various patterns of nominal sentences, attempting to clarify the impact of these patterns within the contexts presented in Al-Qawwas's Maqamat. This research comprises an introduction in which the researchers have introduced the life of Al-Qawwas Al-Halabi and his literary Maqamat. Moreover, the reserachers have also provided an introduction to the Arabic sentence, followed by an exploration of the semantics of the nominal sentence and its patterns within the contexts of Al-Qawwas's Maqamat. As a result, This has revealed the significance of each form and pattern of the nominal sentence used by Al-Qawwas, demonstrating his intention to employ them for a specific semantic purpose within his Maqamat.</p> Mariam Fadhil kareem Assoc. Prof. Hamasat mohammed hasan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2 The effect of the information stake strategy in acquiring geographical concepts from the social studies book among second-year intermediate school girls <p>The current research aims to determine the impact of the information scaffolding strategy on acquiring geographical concepts from the Social Studies textbook among second-grade female students. To achieve this goal, the researcher formulated the following null hypothesis: "There is no statistically significant difference at the (0.05) level between the average scores of the experimental group students studying geographical concepts according to the information scaffolding strategy and the average scores of the control group students studying the same material using the conventional method in the acquisition test of geographical concepts.</p> <p>The researcher adopted the experimental method, which includes two experimental and control groups with a post-test design. Deliberately choosing the "Noor Al-Islam Girls Middle School" located in the Palestine Street area, affiliated with the General Directorate of Education in Baghdad Governorate - Al-Rusafa/First, the research sample consisted of 68 second-grade female students, with 34 students in each class. For the purpose of experimentation, Class (A) was randomly selected to represent the control group, while Class (B) represented the experimental group. Students from both research groups were matched by controlling variables (intelligence, age, previous year's geography grades) on Thursday, October 13, 2022.</p> <p>Eighteen concepts were identified, with a total of 54 behavioral objectives according to the levels of concept acquisition (definition, discrimination, generalization). The researcher used statistical methods such as the independent samples t-test and appropriate statistical methods in the research procedures. The study resulted in the following outcome: The experimental group that studied according to the information scaffolding strategy outperformed the control group that studied according to the traditional method. In light of the current research results, the researcher recommended: the necessity of adopting modern strategies in teaching geography, conducting similar studies to the current one in other subjects and at different stages, and considering other variables such as inductive thinking, attitude towards the subject, critical thinking, and others</p> Asst.Lect. Raghd Hamdan Abd Al Rastmawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 2 2