The Pakistani-Afghan relations 1979-1989, a historical study


  • Dr. Hind Ali Hasan


International relations, and the consequent changes, are an important and sometimes decisive factor in the course of events that took place in the Asian countries in the second half of the twentieth century, especially in the countries of the Asian continent, including Pakistan and Afghanistan. The relations between the two countries, throughout its contemporary history and since the independence of Pakistan from the Indian subcontinent on August 15, 1947, were characterized by many disputes and border problems. The first reason for which was the border line (Durand).

  The problem of the Pashtun tribes distributed between Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran is a cause of conflicts and constant tensions in foreign and diplomatic relations, especially after Kabul demanded, with the encouragement of the Soviet Union, the independence of the Pashtun region and the formation of a state of their own that includes the Pashtuns present on the Pakistani and Afghan side. This led to a state of the constant hostility between them that helped the international parties and the two major poles, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, in deepening and encouraging this tension and increasing the size and depth of the gap in the international relations of the two countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

 By the developments in the political arena and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet forces on December 27, 1979, Pakistan had found a strong ally from the United States of America in light of the Soviet threat to the region as a whole, which aroused suspicion and apprehension for the latter, especially after the United States of America established military bases in Islamabad considered it a real threat to their national security and political interests in the warm waters region.

 Anyhow, there were continuous diplomatic signs to reach peace in the Pakistani-Afghan relations throughout the period of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan by holding informal sessions at times and formal at others, under the auspices of the United Nations. Throughout these sessions, we sought through research that the air raids and shelling continued between both parties through what was indicated by the official documents and newspapers that were issued on a daily basis documenting the events, the victims, and the bombing areas, until the withdrawal actually took place after the agreement of the four parties, the United States of America, the Soviet Union and Pakistan and Afghanistan. Certainly, the interest of the major countries in this withdrawal was present and certain, so the withdrawal began completely and gradually on May 15, 1988, and ended completely on February 15, 1989, so that all Soviet forces actually left.

Keyword: Relations, Pakistani, afghan, Soviet Union.

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2023-09-01 — Updated on 2023-09-02