Bullying, its causes and psychological and social effect
The student relationship has become governed by many variables and social and behavioral influences. Bullying is a serious problem that threatens school security in general, and the school environment is a major cause of the emergence or growth of bullying behaviors. School administration in decision-making and schools with a large number and crowded classes are prepared to have a higher rate of violence due to the presence of others and the influence on the individual, and bullying behavior may increase among people in times of crises and adversities that cause the individual to severe successive frustrations, as the more frustrations and needs increase The individual that stands in the way of achieving the goals of youth in general and adolescents in particular ..
Bullying behavior is mentioned in psychological sources, with several terms, including (bullying), (bullying), (bullying), (bullying), (hooliganism) and (peer violence). Dan Olweus of Norway (1978: 1978) defines bullying as deliberate negative actions. By one or more pupils to cause harm to another pupil, it is done repeatedly and all the time, and these negative actions can be with words such as: threatening, scolding, teasing and insults, and it can also be with physical contact such as hitting, pushing and kicking, or even without using words or physical exposure Such as grimacing or inappropriate gestures, with the intent and purpose of isolating him from the group or refusing to comply with his desire. According to Elois, bullying can only be spoken of when there is an imbalance in energy or power (an asymmetric power relationship); That is, in the case of difficulty in self-defense, but when a dispute arises between two students who are almost equal in terms of physical strength and psychological energy, this is not called bullying. From the appearance of signs of distress and objection in the student who is exposed to him, he falls within the circle of bullying There must be four elements in bullying behavior regardless of gender and age, which are (imbalance in power, intent to harm, threat of subsequent aggression, perpetual terror).
The distinguishing characteristics of bullying behavior are (the intent of the bullying behavior is intentional, the aim of the bullying behavior is to control another child through physical or verbal aggression, the bully assaults others without an actual reason, but only because the victim is an easy target, the bully is popular among his peers more than aggressive children.
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