The development of the concept of apology among children aged (5-11) years In Diyala Governorate


  • M. Asmaa Abbas Aziz Al-Dulaimi


development, concept, apology, children, Diyala government


The investigator undertook a study to probe the repercussions of cultural exposure, the expansive reach of social media and the internet, the proliferation of satellite channels featuring programs and series reflective of each country's culture, and the ensuing unreflective imitation of these cultures by our children. Fundamental concepts that should be instilled in our children, such as the notion of apologizing, have undergone transformations. In contemporary times, this concept is perceived more as a sign of vulnerability rather than an embodiment of noble character. Recognizing the paramount importance of sound social and moral development, the investigator conducts a study to address the following inquiries: Do children in Diyala province possess a grasp of the concept of apologizing? Does this understanding undergo development, and if so, is the trajectory positive or negative? Does the comprehension of the concept vary between males and females? To fulfill the research objectives, the investigator devised a research instrument, presenting an open-ended question to a cohort of mothers, kindergarten teachers, and elementary school educators: "What instances and scenarios exemplify a child offering an apology?" The responses are collected, methodically arranged into lucid paragraphs, and assigned alternatives (yes, no) accompanied by corrections (1, 0) to function as an objective test gauging the presence of the concept. The test comprised 8 paragraphs.

The superficial and content validity are ascertained using the extreme groups method, subsequently applied to the research sample encompassing children aged 5, 7, 9, and 11 years. The sample, totaling 120 children, is evenly distributed across the age groups, with 15 girls and 15 boys in each cohort.

Calculation of descriptive statistics, standard deviation, t-value, and one-way ANOVA revealed that the concept of apologizing evolves in children with age but follows an intermittent rather than a continuous trajectory. The investigator recommend the imperative of imparting the concept of apologizing to children through straightforward visual curricula in kindergartens and primary schools. Additionally, awareness campaigns, as well as the dissemination of posters, brochures, and booklets on apologizing, are suggested for implementation in all kindergartens and elementary schools in Diyala province.

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